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Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

Basics

  • Project TitlePilotage and Dead Reckoning
  •  

    View/Download File: Unit Plan - Eric Brunelle Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

  • Employer SiteAlpha One Flight Services
  • Submitted By (Teacher Name)Eric Brunelle
  • SchoolBrockton High School
  • Brief Description and RationaleAircraft navigation has a range of methods – to the completely visual, to complicated flight management systems. This unit will focus on the two basic methods of navigation used by VFR (Visual Flight Rules) pilots – Pilotage and Dead Reckoning. This unit will be used in our new four year program on Aviation Science, which I will be teaching.
  • Grade LevelGrades 9-12
  • Materials / ResourcesAttached PowerPoint Presentations. Handouts are attached to both the Unit plan and each Lesson Plan
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    View/Download File: Lesson 1 - Charts, Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

    View/Download File: Lesson 2 - Longitude and Latitude

    View/Download File: Lesson 3 - Compass

    View/Download File: Lesson 4 - Using a Plotter

    View/Download File: Lesson 5 - Flight Plan

    View/Download File: Lesson Plan 1 - Charts, Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

    View/Download File: Lesson Plan 2 - Longitude and Latitude

    View/Download File: Lesson Plan 3 - Compass

    View/Download File: Lesson Plan 4 - Using a Plotter

    View/Download File: Lesson Plan 5 - Flight Plan

  • Duration of lessonThis lesson will be for 5, 60 minute periods
  • Key Vocabulary / Word WallPilotage, Dead Reckoning, Charts, Plotter, Controlled Airports, Uncontrolled Airports, Visual Flight Rules, Quadrant Elevations, Longitude, Latitude, Prime Meridian, Antimeridian, True North, True South, Magnetic North and South, Degrees, minutes, seconds, Magnetic Variation, Isogonic Lines, Plotter, Statue and Nautical Miles, heading, course, Flight Plan, Call Sign, check points
  • Pre-Requisite Knowledge8th grade math skills, using a ruler
  • Strategies to promote equityConsider lesson plan design, access to technology and tools, any additional supports for students.
  • Instructional ObjectivesStudents will be able to define the terms "Pilotage" and "Dead Reckoning".

    Students will be able to determine geographic position using Degrees, Minutes and Seconds.

    Students will be able to determine True Course and Magnetic Course for a planned, no wind flight using an aviation Plotter.

    Students will be able to create a no wind flight plan from an origin airport to a destination airport within 80 nautical miles of the origin.

    Students will be able to determine magnetic variation by using a compass, and lines of longitude and latitude.

Lesson #1

  • Lesson Plan 1 - Aviation ChartsAviation Charts
  • Lesson plan 1 objectivesStudents will be able to:
    • Define the terms "Pilotage" and "Dead Reckoning".
    • Identify populated areas on an aviation chart.
    • Identify Controlled and Uncontrolled airports on an aviation chart.
    • Identify bodies of water on an aviation chart.
    • Identify Quadrant Elevations and Elevation Trends on an aviation chart.

  • Anticipatory set or lesson opening (to activate students` prior learning or draw student interest or involvement)Students will be issued a Boston Terminal Area Chart.
    • Opener – Describe your first impression of the chart.
    • In what ways does it remind you of a map?
    • Identify three items on the chart that you would like to know learn about.


  • Direct InstructionThe lesson will begin with a PowerPoint presentation pointing out the various types of charts, and various parts of the TAC. The Presentation will be interactive, using questions, analysis and explanations.
  • Guided PracticeAfter each slide of the TAC presentation, students will create a sketch of the different items that are studied.
  • Independent Practice/Differentiated ActivitiesIn groups of three, analyze the chart and identify items on the chart that you think you understand, or that you would like to be able to identify.
  • Reflection on Employability SkillsWho uses TAC’s and why? Commercial pilots need to know TAC charts for VFR flights
  • Lesson ClosureReview the identified items, and discuss the student identified items on the chart.
  • Summative/end of lesson assessmentPrior to tomorrows lesson, there will be an activator to review and identify the items on the chart that were discussed today.
  • References / Resources / Teacher PreparationPowerPoint Presentation – Digital TAC Charts, Chart handouts, pencils
  •  /project762_2332/NewYorkSECsmall.jpg/project762_2332/01brocktonplymouth.jpg/project762_2332/CF19WAC44_preview_0.jpg

    View/Download File: /project762_2332/01_lesson_handout.docx

    View/Download File: /project762_2332/01lesson.pptx

Lesson #2

  • Lesson Plan 2 TopicLongitude and Latitude
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    View/Download File: Lesson 2 - Longitude and Latitude

  • Lesson Plan 2 ObjectivesStudents will be able to:
    • locate an airport on Google Earth and determine its longitude and latitude.
    • determine geographic position using Degrees, Minutes and Seconds.
    • describe the differences between True North and Magnetic North


  • Anticipatory set or lesson opening (to activate students` prior learning or draw student interest or involvement)Quiz – (attached) on the TAC
    Opener – Without using your address, describe the location of your home to classmate.
    • Was this easy or hard? Why?
  • Direct InstructionThis lesson will begin with a PowerPoint presentation that will outline the sessions activities. Students will use the “Aviation Longitude and Latitude” hand out to work through the exercises.
  • Guided PracticeThe teacher will circulate among the class to give additional guidance and demonstrations.
  • Independent Practice/Differentiated ActivitiesStudents will work in groups of three, using discovery, discussion and online research to answer questions..
  • Reflection on Employability SkillsWe have had many discussions on GPS position during ground school and discussions among CFI’s (Certified Flight Instructor)
  • Lesson ClosureIn your Journal, explain the advantages of a coordinate system as opposed to a descriptive narrative to determine your location.
  • Summative/end of lesson assessmentQuestions at the end of the Longitude/Latitude worksheet.
  • References / Resources / Teacher PreparationGoogle Earth Pro, Longitude and Latitude handout
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    View/Download File: Aviation Longitude and Latitude

    View/Download File: Lesson 2 - Longitude and Latitude PPT

Lesson #3

  • Lesson Plan 3 TopicThe Magnetic Compass
  • Lesson Plan 3 ObjectivesStudents will be able to determine magnetic variation by using a compass, and lines of longitude and latitude.
  • Anticipatory set or lesson opening (to activate students` prior learning or draw student interest or involvement)In your Journal, try to answer these two questions as best you can:
    • Where does a compass needle point to?
    • What make a compass needle point in a particular direction?
    • How is this different from lines of longitude?
  • Direct InstructionIn the previous lesson, we learned about “True North” and “True South”. In today’s lesson, we will explore “Magnetic North” and “Magnetic South” and their relationship to charting a flight plan course.
    Students will be issued a magnetic compass to use with this outdoor activity. We will go to the nearby soccer fields and set up four cones that approximately align with a line of longitude. Students will stand between any two cones and align their compasses perpendicular to the cones. Students will then align the north indication on the compass to the compass needle and approximate the number of degrees of variation.
    The lesson will be introduced with a PowerPoint presentation.
    The teacher will emphasize that True directions are geographical, while Magnetic directions are determined by the earth’s magnetic source. True coordinates and directions are easily mapped, but do not help in flight navigation. Therefore, we must use a combination of true and magnetic courses in aviation.
  • Guided PracticeThe teacher will circulate among the class to give additional guidance and demonstrations.
  • Independent Practice/Differentiated ActivitiesUpon returning to class, students will work in new groups of three using discovery and collaboration.
  • Reflection on Employability SkillsThis lesson translates into real word careers in GPS navigation systems, marine and aviation navigation systems – e.g. Air Traffic Controllers
  • Lesson ClosureIn your journal, explain why we need to have knowledge of BOTH True and Magnetic directions.

  • Summative/end of lesson assessmentOral and participatory review before tomorrow’s lesson.
  • References / Resources / Teacher PreparationMagnetic compasses, Google Earth handout, PowerPoint presentation.
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    View/Download File: /project762_2332/03_lesson_handout.docx

    View/Download File: Lesson 3 - Compass

Lesson #4

  • Lesson Plan 4 TopicInitial Flight Planning
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    View/Download File: Lesson 4 - Using a Plotter

  • Lesson Plan 4 ObjectivesStudents will be able to determine True Course and Magnetic Course for a planned, no wind flight using an aviation Plotter.
    Students will be able to list checkpoints on their Flight Plan.
    Students will be able to calculate point to point distances on a sectional chart.
    Students will be able to calculate estimated point to point and and total times for a no wind flight plan.
  • Anticipatory set or lesson opening (to activate students` prior learning or draw student interest or involvement)In your journal, explain the difference between Magnetic North and True North. Use these terms:
    • North Pole
    • Magnetic North Pole
    • Isogonic Lines
  • Direct InstructionThe lesson will begin with passing out aviation plotters. Students will retrieve their New York Sectional Chart for use in this lesson. Next, the teacher will show and explain a PowerPoint presentation on the use of technical layout and use of the Plotter. Students will then watch two videos on the practical use of the Plotter.
  • Guided PracticeDirect instruction with the use of an Elmo will be used to go through step-by-step instruction for a planned flight from Norwood airport to Turner’s Fall airport.
  • Independent Practice/Differentiated ActivitiesEach student will need a large desk area to work on the flight plan plot. The teacher will circulate for independent help, as well as use advanced students to help with differentiated instruction
  • Reflection on Employability SkillsFlight planning is the essential first step in aerial navigation. Air Traffic Controllers and professional pilots need to master these skills in order to continue their career pursuit.
  • Lesson ClosureIn your journal, explain why you chose certain check point over other possible check points.
  • Summative/end of lesson assessmentTomorrow’s lesson will be to create a “no wind” flight plan. Students will need to use today’s lesson as the basis for tomorrow’s work product
  • References / Resources / Teacher PreparationYou Tube links:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRJaU0y5RHY
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9eJUioUWkPc

    Attached Powerpoint, plotters, pencils and Sectional Charts
  •  

    View/Download File: Lesson 4 - Using a Plotter

    View/Download File: /project762_2332/flight_plan.docx

    View/Download File: Lesson 4 - Using a Plotter

Lesson #5

  • Lesson Plan 5 TopicCreating a “no wind” Flight Plan
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    View/Download File: Lesson 5 Flight Plan

  • Lesson Plan 5 ObjectivesStudents will be able to create a no wind flight plan from an origin airport to a destination airport within 80 nautical miles of the origin.
    Students will be able to determine True Course and Magnetic Course for a planned, no wind flight using an aviation Plotter.
    Students will be able to list checkpoints on their Flight Plan.
    Students will be able to calculate point to point distances on a sectional chart.
    Students will be able to calculate estimated point to point and and total times for a no wind flight plan.

  • Anticipatory set or lesson opening (to activate students` prior learning or draw student interest or involvement)Reflecting on the previous lesson/demonstration, why do you think Pilotage is important for a modern pilot - who has the advantage of automation in the cockpit?
  • Direct InstructionThe lesson will begin with a PowerPoint overview of the days activities. The presentation will go over the steps in the activity, and will be supported by a worksheet and a Flight Plan sheet
  • Guided PracticeUsing the Elmo, the teacher will demonstrate the techniques used for developing the Flight Plan. The technique will be step by step, with ample time to walk the classroom to help students in need
  • Independent Practice/Differentiated ActivitiesEach student will create a unique Flight Plan but will be situated in a group of three. Students will be able to collaborate and help each other in developing the Flight Plan.
  • Reflection on Employability SkillsThis is a typical Ground School lesson for the Private Pilot curriculum. I have observed this in a less structured setting at the Alpha One Ground School.
  • Lesson ClosureStudents will complete both the Flight Plan instruction Sheet and the Flight Plan log sheet.
  • Summative/end of lesson assessmentThis will be the major part of the unit grade. See attached Rubric.
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    View/Download File: /project762_2332/Flight_plan_rubric.docx

  • References / Resources / Teacher PreparationAttached PowerPoint, plotters, pencils, Flight Plan log, Flight Plan Instructions and Sectional Charts
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    View/Download File: Lesson 5 PowerPoint

    View/Download File: Lesson 5 Instructions

    View/Download File: Lesson 5 - Flight Log

Recommended Strategies / Instructional Techniques

  • Reading StrategiesStudents will explore the VFR Sectional and TAC Chart
    legends to develop understanding of the various symbols used
    on these charts.
  • Multimedia/Visual Strategy (f.e. slidesThe Unit will use PowerPoint presentations, paper charts,
    plotters and pencils
  • Graphic organizers or handoutsLesson 1
    • Digital TAC, WAC and Sectional Charts, Chart
    handouts
    Lesson 2
    • Google Earth Pro, Longitude and Latitude handout
    Lesson 3
    • Magnetic compasses, New York Sectional Charts, #2
    pencils, straight edge
    Lesson 4
    • Aviation Plotters, pencils and New York Sectional
    Charts
    Lesson 5
    • Flight Plan log, Flight Plan Instructions, Aviation
    Plotters and Sectional Charts
  • Writing StrategiesStudents will reflect on the days or previous days activities in
    their journals
  • Speaking and Listening StrategiesThere will be additional lessons in this unit, where presentations
    to the class will be the culminating activity.
  • Family: Any opportunities to involve parent/guardians and other family members in this project?At some point during the school year, we will plan a field trip to
    the airport. There will be opportunities for parents to meet their
    children at the airport and experience a discounted “Discovery
    Flight”. There will also be a “Young Eagles” day at Plymouth
    Airport where children ages 10-17 can get a free discovery
    flight with a volunteer pilot. I have participated in both of these
    activities in the past.
  • Virtual/Remote Learning OppotunitiesThis lesson can be done remotely; however it will be missing
    the individual help and group support. This can be overcome to
    some extent through the use of online video tutorials, of which
    there are many.
  •  

    View/Download File: Instructional Techniques

Activity Sheets

  • Aviation Charts

    Questions and Definitions




    1.  Define “Pilotage”



     



     




    1. Define “Dead Reckoning”



     



     




    1. What is a WAC chart and why would we use one?



     



     




    1. What is a TAC chart and why would we use one?



     



     



     




    1. How are “Populated Areas” depicted on the TAC?



     



     



     




    1. How are Controlled Airports depicted on the TAC?  Uncontrolled Airports?



     



     



     




    1. What is the difference between Controlled and Uncontrolled airports?



     



     



     




    1. Why is it important that a pilot know the “Quadrant Elevations”?


  •  /project762_2332/NewYorkSECsmall.jpg/project762_2332/WACsmall.jpg

    View/Download File: Boston TAC Chart

  • Aviation Longitude and Latitude

    Aviation Longitude and Latitude





    Open Google Earth Pro  > View> Grid



     



     



    What is the Longitude of the Prime Meridian?   ___________________



    What is the Longitude of the Antemeridian?      ___________________



    What is the Latitude of the North Pole?              ___________________



    What is the Latitude of the South Pole?              ___________________



    Find an airport with two intersecting runways. List the four Longitude/Latitude points that define the “Numbers” of the runway.  Use Degrees (°), Minutes (‘) and Seconds (“) - with Decimal.



     



    Airport_________________________________________________________________



    Example –  RWY 15  Latitude 41°40'48.75"N   Longitude  70°57'50.54"W



    RWY



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



     



     



     



     










    E











    N











    S











    W




    Sketch the runway layout based on True North



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



                                                



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



    Questions – Answer each question in a complete sentence.




    1. Explain what is meant by this position report:  “Aircraft is approximately located at 41°42' North Latitude, 71° 3' West Longitude.”



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     




    1. What is the meaning of a runway number?  What is the accuracy of the runway number?



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



     



    Second Airport_________________________________________________________________



     



    Example –  RWY 15  Latitude 41°40'48.75"N   Longitude  70°57'50.54"W



    RWY



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



    ____   Latitude                                                                 Longitude



     



    How many “Nautical Miles” are there between your two airports?



     



     



     



     



    What would your “Heading” be?



     



     



     



     



    Topic to investigate:  Would your heading be a “True” heading or a “Magnetic” Heading?


  •  

    View/Download File: Aviation Charts Handout

Frameworks / Skills

  • VTE Strand 4 - Employability
    4.A.01
    Develop a career plan and portfolio
    (VTE Strand 4 - Employability)
  • VTE Strand 4 - Employability
    4.B.01.01
    Communicate effectively using the language and vocabulary appropriate to a variety of audiences within the workplace including coworkers, supervisors and customers.
    (VTE Strand 4 - Employability)
  • VTE Strand 4 - Employability
    4.B.01.02
    Read technical and work-related documents and demonstrate understanding in oral discussion and written exercise.
    (VTE Strand 4 - Employability)
  • VTE Strand 4 - Employability
    4.C.03
    Accepts direction and constructive criticism.
    (VTE Strand 4 - Employability)
  • VTE Strand 4 - Employability
    4.C.06
    Interact appropriately with coworkers.
    (VTE Strand 4 - Employability)
  • 21st Century
    Flexibility and Adaptability
    Adapt to varied roles, jobs responsibilities, schedules and context. Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and changing priorities. Incorporate feedback effectively.
    (21st Century)
  • Digital Literacy and Computer Science
    9-12.DTC.b.1
    Communicate and publish key ideas and details to a variety of audiences using digital tools and media-rich resources.
    (Digital Literacy and Computer Science)
  • Digital Literacy and Computer Science
    9-12.DTC.b.2
    Collaborate on a substantial project with outside experts or others through online digital tools (e.g., science fair project, community service project, capstone project).
    (Digital Literacy and Computer Science)
  • Science and Technology/Engineering
    HS.ETS.1.3
    Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, aesthetics, and maintenance, as well as social, cultural, and environmental impacts.*
    (Science and Technology/Engineering)
  • English Language Arts and Literacy
    RCA-ST.9-10.4
    Determine the meaning of general academic vocabulary, as well as symbols, key terms, notation, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9`10 texts and topics
    (English Language Arts and Literacy)

Tags = Aviation | Subject = Mathematics, Science, Technology | Grade Level = HS | Time Period = School Year | Program/Funding = | Externships-2020 |
Direct website link to this project: http://resources21.org/cl/contextual.asp?projectnumber=762.2332