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Projectile Physics

Basics

  • Project TitleProjectile Physics
  • ThemeTo engage students through the use of project based instruction. Students will use the scientific method to determine the formula to predict where a projectile will land ignoring friction.
  • Submitted ByKeith M Davis, Paul Allen
  • OrganizationNorth Adams Public Schools
  • Brief DescriptionProjectile Motion will be redesigned to help students make connections between personal interests, higher education, careers, creativity, mathematics, and science. Project Motion incorporates a new lab component in which students will apply the scientific method by developing a hypothesis and conducting experiments to prove or disprove their hypothesis through the application of math and science concepts.
  • Materials / ResourcesThe current lack of equipment and developed curriculum is a barrier to in depth study of projectile motion. The purchase of projectile launcher experimentation equipment will enhance the physics lab and student hands-on application of concepts. Adequate time will be devoted to explore projectile motion, the scientific inquiry method, and learn and practice the connected math skills. Students will defend their work using computer generated graphs and by presenting and demonstrating their results to their classmates and to the two local college Physics department members.
  • Team membersStaff to include, Mr. Allen, Mr. Davis (Drury High School), Mr. Carl Wolf, Professor of Physics MCLA, Michael OíNeil, Physics Lab coordinator, Emily Mahar, Chair of Physics Department, and Paul Allen, Adjunct Professor of Physics
    Williams College- David Tucker Smith, Professor of Physics, Students in the Physics classes. Assistance from Phoebe Pepper and her art classes with worksheet sketches.
  • Pre-requisite knowledgeAfter studying Scientific method, linear motion (speed, velocity, acceleration free fall, air resistance, Vectors and scalar quantities), Students will have successfully completed 9th and 10th grade math.
  • Technical support neededStudents will need to experiment, compose a hypothesis, design tests to evaluate their hypothesis, and defend their results to the college physics professors. They also will need to learn how to use the equipment safely and correctly.
  • Any modifications or extensions for particular student populations?Some students on IEPís will have to have additional time available and will have to have assistance composing there hypothesis but should be able to design their own tests to evaluate the hypothesis.

Key Questions

  • Key Questions1. How are science, Technology and Engineering advanced in society?
    a. What is the scientific method and how does it differ and mirror the Engineering Design Process?
    b. How do you develop a hypothesis?
    c. How do you test the hypothesis?
    2. How are math and science related?
    a. How can scientific principles be modeled using math.
  • Connections: How or why was this topic identified? Why is it meaningful?Since physics is the basic science that explains the nature of basic things such as motion, forces, energy, matter, heat sound light and the composition of atoms and math is the means to model each of these principals, it seemed appropriate to have students apply mathematical and scientific principles to further their understanding of the natural world. Further this would allow students the opportunity to see the value of math and science skills in real world applications.
  • Background Research: What resources were used to find background information for this project?Conceptual Physics, By Paul G. Hewitt, Prentice Hall 2006.
    Fischer Scientific, for information on launchers and measuring equipment.
    Michael OíNeil, Physics Lab coordinator MCLA for additional help with equipment necessary.
  • Outcomes: What was the outcome? How was it shared or applied in the community?The unit is undergoing revision. At this point the final product of better student understanding is theoretical only. The current lack of equipment
    and developed curriculum is a barrier to in depth study of projectile motion. With the enhanced
    plan, students will have the opportunity to choose and use resources and to explain projectile
    motion in new and innovative ways. The
    purchase of projectile launcher experimentation equipment will enhance the physics lab and student hands-on application of concepts. The new unit will have adequate time to explore projectile motion, the scientific inquiry method,
    and learn and practice the connected math skills. Students will derive and verify formulas. Students will show their work using computer generated graphs and by presenting and demonstrating their results to their classmates and to community partners.
    A this point in time, the new revised unit is in the process of revision with the plan of readying it for roll out next fall.
  • Family: Any opportunities to involve parent/guardians and other family members in this project?When students present and defend their research to their classmates and various community partners, parents and family members will be invited as well.

Units / Activities

  • Day 1-2 - one class period Pre test 15 minutes Dropping a projectile is mostly a review of linear motion. 35 minutesComplete Projectile Pre Activity
    Administer Projectile Motion Pre Test
    Teach Projectile motion by simply dropping an object. See teaching sheet and assignment sheet
    See attached files. Provide Calculators Allow notes from previous unit on Linear motion. See attached teaching sheet and assignment sheet.
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    View/Download File: Projectile Motion Pre Test

    View/Download File: Projectile Motion Pre Test Answer Key

    View/Download File: Ball is dropped teaching sheet, assignment sheet and answer key

    View/Download File: Projectile Pre Activity

    View/Download File: Projectiles in Sports - A powerpoint presentation

    View/Download File: Ancient History of Projectiles

  • Day 3-4 - Using a horizontally launched object Calculate where it will land 2 class periods First Activity is the teaching sheet involving a horizontally launched projectile using a 12-pound Howitzer civil war cannon. Second activity is worksheet of Dian Fossey escaping from a hungry lion.
    Third exercise is quiz or homework where a woman has to jump out of a burning plane 300 meters above the ground without a parachute. To have any chance of survival it is essential that robin land in the top of the only palm tree on the island. She hopes this tree will break her fall.The waters around the island are infested with hungry sharks.
    See attached files, provide calculators and quad ruled graph paper
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    View/Download File: Projectil motion in vertical and horizontal directions, teaching sheet, paractice sheet and answer key

    View/Download File: Escape from lion assignment with Answer Document

    View/Download File: Escape from Burning Plane Quiz and Answer Document

  • Day 5 Lab experience Using projectile launchers, protractors, timer gates, timers, stands from Pasco, Instruct students in the proper safety, setup and operation. Since equipment has not yet been purchased, there is no current direction sheet attached as to how to do this.
    Complete the lab exercise attached. This lab deals with dropped projectiles being pulled to the earth by gravity similar to the calculated exercises complete in day 1.
    Timer gate, timers, meter sticks, Timer gate stand, Timer stop pad
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    View/Download File: General Instructions for all Projectile Labs

    View/Download File: Free fall Projectiles

  • Day 6 Lab experienceUsing projectile launchers, protractors, timer gates, timers, stands from Pasco, Instruct students in the proper safety, setup and operation. Since equipment has not yet been purchased, there is no current direction sheet attached as to how to do this.
    Complete the lab exercise attached. This lab deals with horizontally launched projectiles being pulled to the earth by gravity similar to the calculated exercises complete in day 2 and 3.
    Projectile launchers, launch supports, protractors, timer, gates, timers. meter sticks, impact boards consisting of a hard surface, carbon paper (carbon side up), and plain white paper
  •  /project492_4566/lab0001.jpg

    View/Download File: Projectil motion lab part 2

  • Day 7 Derive the range formula for ground to ground projectiles launched ayt an angleWatch the attached power point until understanding how a projectiles range can be calculated using the range calculation formula.
    Use the range calculation formula and an initial velocity of 2m/s to determine the range of projectiles launched at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. Draw a conclusion about projectiles.
    The Power Point presentation
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    View/Download File: Deriving the range calculation for ground to ground projectile launches.

  • Day 8 Students now understand how horizontal Velocity is constant, vertical velocity is controlled by acceleration due to gravity and students understand how to calculate where ground to ground projectiles will land accounting for the angle of launch; stuUsing the projectile equipment and a partner, design an experiment that will test your hypothesis of where a projectile will land by calculating and measuring the actual spot. The calculated and actual landing locations should be within a 5% margin of error. This must be proven. This experiment should consider different angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees.Projectile launchers, launch supports, protractors, timer, meter sticks, impact boards consisting of a hard surface, carbon paper (carbon side up), and plain white paper
  •  /project492_4566/lab30001.jpg

    View/Download File: Directions for Student Design Projectile Lab

    View/Download File: Effects of velociy in projectiles as applied to Lacrosse

  • Day 9-11 CEPA Curriculum embedded Performance AssessmentComplete the attached CEPA to assess student understanding.Projectile Trajectory CEPA
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    View/Download File: Projectile Trajectory CEPA

  • Day 12 If further evaluation is desired, administer either of the Mastery Assessments.Students should complete one of the attached mastery assessments.Mastery Assessment
  •  

    View/Download File: Projectile Motion College Prep

    View/Download File: Projectile Motion Honors

  • Day 13-15 Prepare a presentation for the college physics teachers that demonstrates what you have learned about projectile motion. Present your knowledge to Williams and MCLA physics professorsPrepare a presentation power point, prezi, video, display board etc. that demonstrates your understanding of projectile motion in both the horizontal and vertical direction including acceleration due to gravity, horizontal velocity constant if air resistance is ignored, angular ground to ground projectiles, formula derivation, and a hypothesis of what projectiles would do on the moon where the gravitational constant is 1.6 m/s/s.Presentation Assignment and Rubric
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    View/Download File: Presentation assignment and rubric

Instructional Techniques

  • Assessing prior knowledgeThe purpose of the pre-test is to establish the student and classes prior knowledge to establish a base line from which to begin
  • Teacher directed activitiesLecture and record answers at board
    Question prior knowledge
    Explain protocols
    Assist with hands-on experiments
    Critiques
    Class discussions
  • Student InvestigationStudents will learn lab lab set up and procedures to research, analysis, and evaluate their findings, record data, follow directions, and draw conclusions.
  • Cooperative Learning, Think Pair Share, Collaboration, Interaction and Sharing to develop understanding of the derivation of ground to ground projectile rangeWhile viewing the derivation of the formula for ground to ground angular projectiles, students will work in teams until all team members can understand the derivation.
  • Applying to Scientific Method to test a HypothesisStudents will develop a hypothesis to determine the horizontal range of a Ground to Ground Projectile launch. They then will devise an experiment to test their hypothesis.
  • Oral PresentationStudents will present their findings and the knowledge learned to local Physics professors from MCLA and Williams College. They will answer questions from the panel Oral presentation skills have already been taught by this point in the year. The presentation rubric will be used
  • Visual PresentationAlong with their oral presentation, students will develop a visual presentation showing knowledge learned in each of the five areas; vertically dropped projectiles, horizontally and vertically dropped projectiles, derivation of the ground to ground launch formula, Their application of the scientific method, and ground to ground projectiles.

Assessment Techniques

Activity Sheets

  • Explaination of where activity sheets are located.

    All Activity Sheets are tied in on the unit activies page.


Tags = physics | Projectiles in Physics | Subject = Mathematics, Science, Technology | Grade Level = HS | Time Period = School Year | Program/Funding = | 189 |
Direct website link to this project: http://resources21.org/cl/contextual.asp?projectnumber=492.4566